Uganda's burden of disease is dominated by communicable diseases, which account for over 50% of morbidity and mortality. Malaria, HIV/AIDS, TB, and respiratory, diarrhoeal, epidemic-prone and vaccine-preventable diseases are the leading causes of illness and death. The Health and Nutrition programme strives to contribute to the attainment of MDGs 4 and 5 in line with children’s rights to survival. Health in Uganda refers to the health of the population of Uganda. As of 2013, life expectancy at birth in Uganda was 58 years, which was lower than in any other country in the East African Community except Burundi. As of 2015, the probability of a child dying before reaching age five was 5.5 percent (55 deaths for every 1000 live births).Total health expenditure as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) was 7.2 percent in 2014. In 2018, an estimated 1.4 million people in Uganda were infected with HIV and the HIV prevalence rate in the country was 5.7 percent. As of 2016, the five leading causes of death in Uganda included communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, respiratory tract infections, and diarrheal diseases. The risk factors most responsible for death and disability include child and maternal malnutrition, unprotected sexual activity, multiple sex partners,contaminated water, poor sanitation, and air pollution. HIV treatment in Uganda has centered on human antiretroviral therapy through cross-training and increasing the scope of health workers who can administer treatment (e.g., community health workers and nurses).This shift in treatment occurred through the WHO's 2004 "Integrated Management of Adult and Adolescent Illness" guide.Studies of HIV-infected adults in Uganda showed risky sexual behavior to have declined, contributing to the decline in HIV incidence. From 1990 to 2004, HIV rates declined by 70 percent and casual sex declined by 60 percent.Health communication was also listed as a potential cause of inducing behavioral changes in the Ugandan population.According to a 2015 study, impediments to reducing HIV incidence include food insecurity in rural areas and stigma against HIV counseling and testing. Uganda has the highest incidence rate of malaria in the world, with 478 people out of 1000 population being afflicted per year.According to WHO data published in May 2014, malaria accounted for 19,869 deaths in Uganda (6.19% of total deaths). In 2002, the Ugandan government formalized the process of treating fevers through home-based care. Mothers who were able to better recognize symptoms of malaria took their children to a community medicine facility early in the illness. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness allowed for better recognition of malaria's symptoms. Treatment either involved immediately taking the child to see a nearby healthcare worker or acquiring the treatment Global Girl Child Youth Initiatives strive to make efforts with other partners to deliver medical services to the less privileged communities.